This text provides numerous examples and thorough coverage of procedures for assessing and instructing struggling readers of all ages. In keeping with current theory, the text emphasizes prevention and early intervention and the belief that virtually all students can learn to read and write on a proficient level if given the proper assistance. It is based on the premise that student performance is variable and that assessment and instruction are planned and modified to meet the varied needs and levels of students. Gunning does not subscribe to a medical model that emphasizes deficiencies, but rather focuses on what students can do. This text calls for inclusion, not exclusion, but recognizes that struggling learners need expert, carefully planned assessment and instruction. Assessment coverage includes a grounding in basic concepts of tests and measurement. While formal, standardized measures are described, emphasis is placed upon informal but highly regarded techniques such as the informal reading inventory, miscue analysis, running records, observation, think-alouds, holistic scoring of writing, and portfolio assessment. assessment and instruction are included throughout the text. Coverage of instructional techniques is thorough and practical. Nine chapters are devoted to instructional techniques.